A joint is formed by the articulation of two or more bones. The articulating surfaces of the bones in a joint are covered with smooth, shiny, white connective tissue called cartilage that reduces friction. The joints are surrounded by ligaments which are strong rope like structures that hold the different bones of the joint together, allowing controlled movement of the joint and preventing dislocation.
The joint may be damaged secondary to wear with repeated use, disease or an injury. This causes pain, stiffness and swelling. Initially non-surgical treatments are recommended to relieve pain, reduce swelling and promote healing. However, surgery may be recommended in patients who fail to benefit from non-surgical modalities of treatment. Surgery may involve joint reconstruction or joint replacement. Orthopedic disorders that may require surgical treatment include degenerative joint disease, cartilage and labral injury, joint malalignment and ligament or tendon tear.
Surgical treatment significantly reduces joint pain and improves the patient’s quality of life helping them resume an active lifestyle. The surgical procedures may include cartilage restoration, ligament and tendon repair, osteotomy, joint resurfacing and / or total joint replacement depending on the condition of the joint of individual patient.